Wednesday, December 30, 2009

Basic Guide To Internet - II

 Please read Basic Guide To The Internet - I before going through this topic.

Telnet is a program that allows you to log into computers on the Internet and use online databases, library catalogs, chat services, and more. There are no graphics in Telnet sessions, just text. To Telnet to a computer, you must know its address. This can consist of words ( or numbers ( Some services require you to connect to a specific port on the remote computer. In this case, type the port number after the Internet address. Example: telnet 185.

Telnet is available on the World Wide Web. Probably the most common Web-based resources available through Telnet have been library catalogs, though most catalogs have since migrated to the Web. A link to a Telnet resource may look like any other link, but it will launch a Telnet session to make the connection. A Telnet program must be installed on your local computer and configured to your Web browser in order to work.

With the increasing popularity of the Web, Telnet has become less frequently used as a means of access to information on the Internet.

FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. This is both a program and the method used to transfer files between computers. Anonymous FTP is an option that allows users to transfer files from thousands of host computers on the Internet to their personal computer account. FTP sites contain books, articles, software, games, images, sounds, multimedia, course work, data sets, and more.

If your computer is directly connected to the Internet via an Ethernet cable, you can use one of several PC software programs, such as WS_FTP for Windows, to conduct a file transfer.

FTP transfers can be performed on the World Wide Web without the need for special software. In this case, the Web browser will suffice. Whenever you download software from a Web site to your local machine, you are using FTP. You can also retrieve FTP files via search engines such as FtpFind, located at / This option is easiest because you do not need to know FTP program commands.

One of the benefits of the Internet is the opportunity it offers to people worldwide to communicate via e-mail. The Internet is home to a large community of individuals who carry out active discussions organized around topic-oriented forums distributed by e-mail. These are administered by software programs. Probably the most common program is the listserv.

A great variety of topics are covered by listservs, many of them academic in nature. When you subscribe to a listserv, messages from other subscribers are automatically sent to your electronic mailbox. You subscribe to a listserv by sending an e-mail message to a computer program called a listserver. Listservers are located on computer networks throughout the world. This program handles subscription information and distributes messages to and from subscribers. You must have a e-mail account to participate in a listserv discussion group. Visit at / to see an example of a site that offers a searchablecollection of e-mail discussion groups.

Majordomo and Listproc are two other programs that administer e-mail discussion groups. The commands for subscribing to and managing your list memberships are similar to those of listserv.

Usenet News is a global electronic bulletin board system in which millions of computer users exchange information on a vast range of topics. The major difference between Usenet News and e-mail discussion groups is the fact that Usenet messages are stored on central computers, and users must connect to these computers to read or download the messages posted to these groups. This is distinct from e-mail distribution, in which messages arrive in the electronic mailboxes of each list member.

Usenet itself is a set of machines that exchanges messages, or articles, from Usenet discussion forums, called newsgroups. Usenet administrators control their own sites, and decide which (if any) newsgroups to sponsor and which remote newsgroups to allow into the system.

There are thousands of Usenet newsgroups in existence. While many are academic in nature, numerous newsgroups are organized around recreational topics. Much serious computer-related work takes place in Usenet discussions. A small number of e-mail discussion groups also exist as Usenet newsgroups.

The Usenet newsfeed can be read by a variety of newsreader software programs. For example, the Netscape suite comes with a newsreader program called Messenger. Newsreaders are also available as standalone products.

FAQ stands for Frequently Asked Questions. These are periodic postings to Usenet newsgroups that contain a wealth of information related to the topic of the newsgroup. Many FAQs are quite extensive. FAQs are available by subscribing to individual Usenet newsgroups. A Web-based collection of FAQ resources has been collected by The Internet FAQ Consortium and is available at /

RFC stands for Request for Comments. These are documents created by and distributed to the Internet community to help define the nuts and bolts of the Internet. They contain both technical specifications and general information.

FYI stands for For Your Information. These notes are a subset of RFCs and contain information of interest to new Internet users.

Links to indexes of all three of these information resources are available on the University Libraries Web site at /

Chat programs allow users on the Internet to communicate with each other by typing in real time. They are sometimes included as a feature of a Web site, where users can log into the "chat room" to exchange comments and information about the topics addressed on the site. Chat may take other, more wide-ranging forms. For example, America Online is well known for sponsoring a number of topical chat rooms.

Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a service through which participants can communicate to each other on hundreds of channels. These channels are usually based on specific topics. While many topics are frivolous, substantive conversations are also taking place. To access IRC, you must use an IRC software program.

A variation of chat is the phenomenon of instant messenging. With instant messenging, a user on the Web can contact another user currently logged in and type a conversation. Most famous is America Online's Instant Messenger. ICQ, MSN and Yahoo are other commonly-used chat programs.

Other types of real-time communication are addressed in the tutorial Understanding the World Wide Web.

Basic Guide To Internet - I

The Internet is a computer network made up of thousands of networks worldwide. No one knows exactly how many computers are connected to the Internet. It is certain, however, that these number in the millions.

No one is in charge of the Internet. There are organizations which develop technical aspects of this network and set standards for creating applications on it, but no governing body is in control. The Internet backbone, through which Internet traffic flows, is owned by private companies.

All computers on the Internet communicate with one another using the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol suite, abbreviated to TCP/IP. Computers on the Internet use a client/server architecture. This means that the remote server machine provides files and services to the user's local client machine. Software can be installed on a client computer to take advantage of the latest access technology.

An Internet user has access to a wide variety of services: electronic mail, file transfer, vast information resources, interest group membership, interactive collaboration, multimedia displays, real-time broadcasting, shopping opportunities, breaking news, and much more.

The Internet consists primarily of a variety of access protocols. Many of these protocols feature programs that allow users to search for and retrieve material made available by the protocol.

The World Wide Web (abbreviated as the Web or WWW) is a system of Internet servers that supports hypertext to access several Internet protocols on a single interface. Almost every protocol type available on the Internet is accessible on the Web. This includes e-mail, FTP, Telnet, and Usenet News. In addition to these, the World Wide Web has its own protocol: HyperText Transfer Protocol, or HTTP. These protocols will be explained later in this document.

The World Wide Web provides a single interface for accessing all these protocols. This creates a convenient and user-friendly environment. It is no longer necessary to be conversant in these protocols within separate, command-level environments. The Web gathers together these protocols into a single system. Because of this feature, and because of the Web's ability to work with multimedia and advanced programming languages, the Web is the fastest-growing component of the Internet.

The operation of the Web relies primarily on hypertext as its means of information retrieval. HyperText is a document containing words that connect to other documents. These words are called links and are selectable by the user. A single hypertext document can contain links to many documents. In the context of the Web, words or graphics may serve as links to other documents, images, video, and sound. Links may or may not follow a logical path, as each connection is programmed by the creator of the source document. Overall, the Web contains a complex virtual web of connections among a vast number of documents, graphics, videos, and sounds.

Producing hypertext for the Web is accomplished by creating documents with a language called HyperText Markup Language, or HTML. With HTML, tags are placed within the text to accomplish document formatting, visual features such as font size, italics and bold, and the creation of hypertext links. Graphics and multimedia may also be incorporated into an HTML document. HTML is an evolving language, with new tags being added as each upgrade of the language is developed and released. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), led by Web founder Tim Berners-Lee, coordinates the efforts of standardizing HTML. The W3C now calls the language XHTML and considers it to be an application of the XML language standard.

The World Wide Web consists of files, called pages or home pages, containing links to documents and resources throughout the Internet.

The Web provides a vast array of experiences including multimedia presentations, real-time collaboration, interactive pages, radio and television broadcasts, and the automatic "push" of information to a client computer. Programming languages such as Java, JavaScript, Visual Basic, Cold Fusion and XML are extending the capabilities of the Web. A growing amount of information on the Web is served dynamically from content stored in databases. The Web is therefore not a fixed entity, but one that is in a constant state of development and flux.

For more complete information about the World Wide Web, see Understanding The World Wide Web.

Electronic mail, or e-mail, allows computer users locally and worldwide to exchange messages. Each user of e-mail has a mailbox address to which messages are sent. Messages sent through e-mail can arrive within a matter of seconds.

A powerful aspect of e-mail is the option to send electronic files to a person's e-mail address. Non-ASCII files, known as binary files, may be attached to e-mail messages. These files are referred to as MIME attachments.MIME stands for Multimedia Internet Mail Extension, and was developed to help e-mail software handle a variety of file types. For example, a document created in Microsoft Word can be attached to an e-mail message and retrieved by the recipient with the appropriate e-mail program. Many e-mail programs, including Eudora, Netscape Messenger, and Microsoft Outlook, offer the ability to read files written in HTML, which is itself a MIME type.

Thursday, November 12, 2009


Inductors are a part of electrical circuit. Whichever circuit you take into consideration, there is always a reactive component in the supply circuit. This is due to inductive or capacitive load. Now, What is inductor?

Inductor is a passive component in the circuit that stores energy in the magnetic field created by the current passing through it. So, it is a storing device. The inductor's ability to store magnetic energy is called inductance and it is measured in Henry(H). Inductor is a type of coil wound with conducting material. The more the number of turns the more is its inductance.

Here I give you videos for more explanation.

An inductor is usually constructed as a coil of conducting material, typically copper wire, wrapped around a core either of air or of ferromagnetic or ferri-magnetic material. Core materials with a higher permeability than air increase the magnetic field and confine it closely to the inductor, thereby increasing the inductance.

In Series They add up, i.e.

In Parallel,

Inductors in Parallel

Inductors do not allow sudden change in current. If we try to break current suddenly, very heavy voltage builds up due to high rate of change of current and thus voltage shock may occur to operating personnel.
So, safety precautions must be followed.
The voltage that builds up due to break in current is given by,

Inductors are used as chokes to dissipate AC component of supply in rectified DC supply. They are used as voltage regulating component in power circuit as well in developed countries where voltage goes higher than the mentioned limits.

Monday, November 2, 2009

How Banks Work

First of all the question should arise in anyone's mind? Why do we need bank accounts?

Why do we keep our money in banks and not with ourselves?

Now the banks work in this way.

We give our money to banks and the banks offer those money to someone else for investing and in turn they take some interest from them and also offers interests to us. So, Because of that interest we are interested in banks. Moreover, it is easy to carry debit cards or cheque instead of cash in our hand.

Banks give loans to the person who requires it so that one can buy home, land or have a business. For this loan, they take certain interest for that amount offered. Similarly, Banks also offer us interest for the money we have invested with them. Banks are critical to economy as they create money by making loans. The amount of money that banks can lend is directly affected by the reserve requirement set by the Federal Reserve. The reserve requirement is currently 3 percent to 10 percent of a bank's total deposits. This amount can be held either in cash on hand or in the bank's reserve account with the Fed.

 Banks work because of our trust in them.We trust that banks will give our money back when we will need them back. But in this process, we forget that bank is also giving that money to someone else. There are different types of banks.

Savings Banks are the ones which were formed for saving of the people who had low incomes.
Cooperative Banks were established to make it possible for the factory owners or lower income people to buy their own home.
Credit Unions were usually started by people who shared a common bond, like working in the same company or living in the same community. The credit union's main function was to provide emergency loans for people who couldn't get loans from traditional lenders. They were like savings for emergency purpose.

Now the question arises how does bank make money? The answer is really simple. They are just like any other business having a product of money. They sell money to other business and take interest which is obviously higher than what they give to the depositors. This way they earn more than they lose. Obviously, The interest rate depends on how many people want to borrow money from banks. 

Monday, October 26, 2009

Adsense Alternatives

Now, Many of you may be involved in making online money through your website. Right...
Many of you may have used Google Adsense. But there are many options available for you to use many other advertisers. There are other programs to earn money from.

Here is a short list of them. I have used many of them. But I believe this is the ranking as per my views.
You need to learn these short terms

CPC: Cost Per Click
CPM or CPI: Cost Per Thousand Impression

It offers different kind of ads and also offers decent amount per click. Right now it is the biggest competitor Adsense have. Unlike Yahoo Publisher Network, Clicksor offers ads all over the world. They offer pop ups, pop under, interstitial ads and other image and text ads as usual.

Bidvertiser offers text ads and image ads. They offer to modify your ads and looks as you want them to look. They pay very high amount per click. But the limitation is that they have limited ad campaigns. For USA  and Canada They are really well suited and are perhaps the best alternatives there. They pay amounts by paypal at as low as 10$ in increment of 10 or 25$.

3. AdBrite

 Adbrite offers around 75% of the revenue to the user and the main advantage is that the half of the sales is generated by the market place and the sales team and the other half is generated by users when they click "Your Ad Here". Minimum Payment is 20 $.

4. Chitika Premium

Get Chitika | Premium

The ads are contextual by default. Ads can be set to non -contextual and can be targeted to specific keywords The main benefit of Chitika is that it can run with adsense. i.e when the visitor comes through search, he will see Chitika ads and in case the visitor comes directly, he will see Google or other ads as per selection. This way it can  run along with adsense. Minimum Payment is $10

5. Yahoo Publisher Network

The Yahoo Publisher Network will give you all of the standard contextual ad sizes and will allow you to filter out competitor’s ads.  The payment system provides you with some extra payment options in that you can request payment via PayPal when you hit $50 in revenue and receive it the same day. The printed cheques take 7-10 days. Unfortunately, they do not approve many accounts. They do not even clear why the account has been rejected or sometimes they don't even bother to confirm that application has been rejected. They have not cleared anything what type of publisher they are looking for or what content they require. They are very selective.

6. Adtoll

AdToll is a hybrid ad network that allows you to sell ad space on your site for a price you determine with you keeping 75% of the revenue.  If you do not sell a space, the unsold inventory will be filled with “Run of Network” ads which are a cost-per-click solution.  Payout minimums are $20 for PayPal and $40 for checks.

7. Widget Bucks

High Payouts
Highly Recommended for sites related to products.
Either you can choose your own products OR like adsense let their algorithm decide based on your web page content. It Can run along with adsense. Minimum payment $50

8.Exit Junction  - Make Money From Your Exit Traffic!

Exit Junction is an innovative way of advertising. Here you will get exit traffic. If a visitor comes through search engine, he will see his search related advertisements when he closes your page or goes back to search engine. So, he will have more intention to click the ads. He will be shown the ads which are related to his search terms. They offer payouts at as low as 25 $.

Thursday, October 22, 2009

How to Set up E-mail account in Outlook Express

For the people who are using Outlook 2007, its is going to be the same process. Here we have given photos of  MS Outlook 2007 Version. The setup procedure will be same for other versions as well.

In Microsoft Outlook, from the E-mail Accounts menu, select Tools.

On the E-mail Accounts wizard window, select Add a new e-mail account, and then click Next

For your server type, select POP3 or IMAP, and then click Next.

How To Setup E-mail Account In Outlook Express

  1. On the Internet E-mail Settings (POP3/IMAP) window, enter your information as follows:
  2. Your Name: Your first and last name.
    E-mail Address: Your email address.
    User Name: Your email address, again.
    Password: Your email account password.
    Incoming mail server (POP3): POP, or IMAP,
    Outgoing mail server (SMTP): 
    Click More Settings.

    On the Internet E-mail Settings window, go to the Outgoing Server tab. 
    Select My outgoing server (SMTP) requires authentication.

    If you did not change the SMTP relay section, select Use same settings as my incoming mail server. If you changed the user name and password in the SMTP relay section of your Manage Email Accounts page, select Log on using and enter the user name and password. The following example assumes you did not change your SMTP relay section in your Manage Email Accounts page. 
    How To Setup E-mail Account In Outlook Express
    Go to the Advanced tab, and then change the Outgoing server (SMTP) port to 80 or 3535
    Click OK.
    Click the Test Account Settings button and you should see all items with green check marks. Click Close to close the test window. 
    Click Next.
    Click Finish

How To Setup E-mail Account in Outlook Express

Friday, October 16, 2009

Website Hosting with Yahoo, Godaddy, BlueHost

To make your own website first of you will need to have a domain name. Now, You may think what is domain name? The url that you type in the address bar like is called domain name. They are unique address to a particular website. So, First of all you need to buy that name because different name have different prices. For example, .com domain names are rated more than or .us. You can buy those domain names from many service providers or resellers. The most known one is

Even yahoo provide the same services.

Now once you have bought a domain name you need a space on the internet to access such that it is accessible by everyone. You need online server to take your site to the world. For that you need hosting space.

Now there are hundreds of server space providers all around the world. Yahoo Hosting Space is also available at a very cheap rate. Godaddy also offers good service and they are very well known for their service.Now Yahoo Web Hosting is available and you can check more details at the given link. Yahoo hosting also offers website marketting service, means taking your site to the visitors, making your website more popular. Yahoo also offers the website building tool with hosting space you buy. Its just a simple tool of pick and place type to make your website and you can take a try of that  software at Website Design Tools. This way yahoo web hosting service provide all the required tools to make your website and make it popular

Now, Another host is Godaddy. Inc. They are world wide known for their service as a host and domain name providers. Thousands of sites are hosted under their hosting space and the good news is that the numbers are increasing day by day. They provide all the softwares and latest features with their hosting. So, they are worth a try.

Another hosting service provider is Bluehost. They provide hosting at a cheaper rate as compared to Godaddy but some of the features may not be available. So, According to your requirement you can check the features there and go for that as well. They are also well known in hosting services and provide unlimited space and bandwidth, means you have no boundings of using the space. No matter, how big your website is. They also provide domain names but the problem is that they do not provide international domains like .us or or .cc suffix domains. 

There are many other hosting service providers. I have just listed the top service providers. There are other hosts like IXWebhosting, Mochahost, HostGater and many more. You can search for them in yahoo or google and check their features and order that as well.

Now the simple templates are available on the internet for trial and making your own changes into them. This way you can learn to build your own website.

Sunday, October 11, 2009

How to find MAC Address of computer?

There are two ways I know to find out MAC address of your computer. First of all what is MAC address?

A Media Access Control address (MAC address) is a unique identifier assigned to most network adapters or network interface cards (NICs) by the manufacturer for identification, and used in the Media Access Control protocol sublayer. If assigned by the manufacturer, a MAC address usually encodes the manufacturer's registered identification number. It may also be known as an Ethernet Hardware Address (EHA), hardware address, adapter address, or physical address.

A host cannot determine from the MAC address of another host whether that host is on the same OSI Layer 2 network segment as the sending host, or on a network segment bridged to that network segment.

Now to find out your unique physical address either you can follow the command prompt method or you can straight find out the physical address from your ISP's support panel.

1st Method

Click the Start button, select Run.

Then, Type CMD and click OK.

A black Command prompt window will open. Type ipconfig /all and press Enter. (Note the space between ipconfig and /all.)

Lots of information will be displayed, but what you need is in the Ethernet Adapter Local Area Connection section. Write down the Physical Address that looks like "0A-B2-C8-D3-E4-D9". This is the "MAC Address."

Your MAC Address (Physical Address) almost always starts with a zero. If you're writing down a number that does not start with "0" you've probably got the wrong number.

MAC address is unique identity of your computer. So, it is very important to know that address.

Saturday, October 3, 2009

Resistors in a circuit

Resistor is a two-terminal electronic component that produces a voltage across its terminals that is proportional to the electric current through it in accordance with Ohm's law:
V = IR
Resistors are elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are ubiquitous in most electronic equipment. Practical resistors can be made of various compounds and films, as well as resistance wire (wire made of a high-resistivity alloy, such as nickel/chrome). They can be made of different kinds of materials. They may be carbon film or even metal strip like tungsten.
When connected in series, their value add up and the resulting value is given by,
Req = R1 + R2 + ..... + Rn
When in parallel they are not additive, instead their resultant value goes down, but powers are additive in that as well. So, In high current application this connection is useful, whereas in high voltage application series connection is required.

In parallel, resultant resistance is given by,

They can be

Carbon composition type
Carbon film type
Metal Film
Wire Wound resistors like rheostats

There are also adjustable resistors like rheostats, potentiometers, strain gauges.

Resistance is measured by color code in electronics.
This color code is as follows.

1st band
2nd band
3rd band (multiplier)
4th band (tolerance)
Temp. Coefficient

±1% (F)
100 ppm
±2% (G)
50 ppm

15 ppm

25 ppm
±0.5% (D)

±0.25% (C)

±0.1% (B)

±0.05% (A)



±5% (J)


±10% (K)


±20% (M)

For example orange, orange and yellow makes 330 kilo-ohms.
334 = 33 × 10,000 ohms = 330 kilo-ohms

Every resistance has power capacity which should not be exceeded in any condition otherwise the resistance may fail.

Friday, October 2, 2009

Day Trading

Here are some of the important terminologies of Day Trading. You need to go through that.

Securities: Financial assets that can be assigned value and traded. Typical securities include stocks and bonds.

Derivative: A dependent security whose price is derived from one or more underlying assets and whose value is determined by fluctuations in the underlying asset. Futures contracts are a common type of derivative.

Stock: A type of security that gives the holder ownership rights in a corporation. If you own a company's stock (or own shares), then you are a shareholder.

Index: An imaginary portfolio of securities representing a particular market or a portion of it. The Standard & Poor's 500 is a well-known index.

Trade: To buy or sell financial assets in any of the financial markets.

Trader: A person who buys or sells financial assets for himself or for others. Traders generally hold assets for a much shorter time than investors.

Broker: A middleman who facilitates trades between buyers and sellers.

Leverage: The use of borrowed money to increase potential returns.

Initial Public Offering (IPO): The first sale of a corporation's stock. Such a company is said to be "going public."

Liquidity: The ability to buy and sell an asset without affecting price levels.

Volatility: A measure of how much the price of a security will vary over time.

First, let's be clear about what day trading isn't. It's not investing, which is the process of buying a stake in an asset that will hopefully build a profit over the long term. How long is subjective, but investors generally hold assets for years, even decades. And they're usually concerned with the businesses they invest in. They look for companies that make solid profits, pay off debts in a timely manner, have a strong pipeline of products and avoid litigation.

day trading
Image courtesy William Harris
This chart shows the extremes in investment horizons.­

Day trading, on the other hand, involves buying and selling securities within the same day. Day traders often use borrowed money to take advantage of small price movements in highly liquid stocks or indexes. In general, they follow the same wisdom as longer-term investors: They try to buy low and sell high -- they just do it in a very compressed window of time.

Important markets for Day Trading are Dow Jones, NASDAQ, Nikkei and some more.

Here are some of the strategies for Trading

If you'll recall, leverage is the process of borrowing money to make more money.

Let's say a particular trade results in a 10 percent return. If you have $50,000 in your account, then your return will be $5,000. But if you borrow another $50,000 and add it to your account, then your return doubles -- you make $10,000. Leverage enables you to increase the dollars returned to you without increasing the performance of the trade.

Where do day traders find this money? They generally borrow it from their brokerage firms, using a special account known as a margin account. The margin account is different from a trader's cash account and requires an initial investment of at least $2,000. Once the margin account is opened, a trader can borrow up to 50 percent of the purchase price of a stock. This is also known as buying on margin.

Another borrowing strategy is selling short. A day trader who sells short borrows a security and then sells it in the hopes of repaying the loan by buying back cheaper shares later on. In this case, the trader looks for a security that is going down in price (as opposed to the more common practice of buying low and selling high). Once he identifies such a security, the trader:

  1. Places an order to sell the stock
  2. Tells the broker he does not own the shares, but instead wants to borrow them
  3. Sits back as the brokerage firm borrows the shares, loans them to his account and executes the sell order
  4. Waits until the security goes down in price, then buys the shares in the market
  5. Returns shares to the broker to pay back the loan
  6. Keeps the difference as profit
Both leverage and selling short carry certain risks, and both can result in a day trader losing his assets and being asked to pay back those he borrowed.

So all and all Day Trading has its advantages but it also carries higher risk factor.